Best known for its presence in house cats and a tendency to infect and alter the behaviors of rodents and humans, the parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is also associated with bold behavior among wild hyena cubs and risk of death during interactions with lions, finds new research.
Scientists have identified an internal communication network in mammals that may regulate tissue repair and inflammation, providing new insights on how diseases such as obesity and inflammatory skin disorders develop.
Researchers were able to show for the first time that a very low calorie diet significantly alters the composition of the microbiota present in the human gut. The researchers report that dieting results in an increase of specific bacteria - notably Clostridioides difficile, which is associated with antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis.
Researchers have developed a condenser for countries where water is in short supply. Theirs is a zero-energy solution for harvesting water from the atmosphere throughout the 24-hour daily cycle. It relies on a self-cooling surface and a special radiation shield.
Pairing blueberry pie with a scoop of ice cream is a nice summer treat. Aside from being tasty, this combination might also help people take up more of the 'superfruit's' nutrients, such as anthocyanins. Researchers show that a protein found in cow's milk helped rats absorb more blueberry anthocyanins and their byproducts, boosting accessibility to these good-for-you nutrients.
For patients who have inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), the condition is literally a pain in the gut. Chronic -- or long-term -- abdominal pain is common, and there are currently no effective treatment options for this debilitating symptom. In a new study, researchers identify a new potential source of relief: a molecule derived from spider venom. In experiments with mice, they found that one dose could stop symptoms associated with IBS pain.
A rare genetic defect that affects the so-called ALG2 gene can cause serious metabolic diseases in humans. Until now, its rareness and complexity made it difficult to study this congenital glycosylation disorder. A research team has finally succeeded in introducing the underlying mutation in the ALG2 gene in a fish model, allowing the causes of these complex diseases to be studied at the molecular level.
Soil liquefaction was a major feature of the 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake that killed 185 people. Researchers developed a machine learning model to predict the amount of lateral movement that can be expected from liquefaction during a natural hazard event. Their model, trained on Christchurch data, was 70% accurate at determining the amount of displacement that occurred.
If you listen to songbirds, you will recognize repeated melodies or phrases. Each phrase is made up of distinct sounds, strung together. A study has found that the song phrases of many songbird species follow patterns that are similar to those used in human speech. At least in some respects.
As you drive down the highway, you may notice an increasing number of hybrid and electric vehicles. Alternative energy automobiles are on the rise contributing to the global effort to reduce carbon emissions. As we move together down this road, researchers are looking to determine new solutions to this ongoing problem.
Communities surrounding the Salton Sea, the inland body of water straddling California's Riverside and Imperial counties, show high rates of asthma due, possibly, to high aerosol dust levels resulting from the sea shrinking over time. Scientists suspect, however, the Salton Sea plays an additional role in pulmonary health. A new study performed on mice has found Salton Sea aerosol turns on nonallergic inflammation genes and may also promote lung inflammation.
More than half of the structures in the contiguous United States are exposed to potentially devastating natural hazards such as floods, tornadoes and wildfires. Increasing temperatures and environmental changes contribute to this trend, according to a new study.
A potent greenhouse gas, methane is released by many sources, both human and natural. Large cities emit significant amounts of methane, but in many cases the exact emission sources are unknown. Now, researchers have conducted mobile measurements of methane and its sources throughout Paris. Their findings suggest that the natural gas distribution network, the sewage system and furnaces of buildings are ideal targets for methane reduction efforts.
Rare-earth elements are in many everyday products, such as smart phones, LED lights and batteries. However, only a few locations have large enough deposits worth mining, resulting in global supply chain tensions. So, there's a push toward recycling them from non-traditional sources, such as waste from burning coal -- fly ash. Now, researchers report a simple method for recovering these elements from coal fly ash using an ionic liquid.
Eating fruits with lunch, vegetables at dinner and a dairy snack in the evening was associated with a reduced risk of early death by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, according to a study of U.S. adults. Eating a Western lunch (typically containing a high quantity of refined grains, cheese and cured meat) was associated with an elevated risk of CVD and all-cause mortalities in the same study.
A new study shows that extremely low winter temperatures high in the atmosphere over the Arctic are becoming more frequent and more extreme because of climate patterns associated with global warming. The study also shows that those extreme low temperatures are causing reactions among chemicals humans pumped into the air decades ago, leading to greater ozone losses.
Diet rich in sugar and fat leads to disruption in the gut's microbial culture and contributes to inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Research shows that switching to a more balanced diet restores the gut's health and suppresses inflammation.
In two new studies on life in the seafloor of the Guaymas Basin, in the Gulf of California, scientists show that distinct regions within the Basin harbor specially adapted microorganisms; discover new microbial inhabitants of this deep-sea community; and suggest how the community may be dramatically influencing carbon cycling in the hot seafloor sediments.
The nucleus is much more than a storage compartment for chromosomes: It also contains the complex machinery producing transcripts of the genes that are currently needed and releases them into the cell body. Some of the proteins involved herein are not evenly distributed in the nucleus, but cluster at specific sites. A study now shows how these 'flash mobs' are regulated.
Few animals can regenerate their spinal cord after an injury. The axolotl can mobilize stem cells in its spinal cord to regrow the lost tissue. An international team of scientists have investigated the early stages of this process.
Researchers developed a novel system to analyze ancient plant DNA in the sediment of Tikal's temple and palace reservoirs to identify more than 30 species of trees, grasses, vines and flowering plants that lived along its banks more than 1,000 years ago. Their findings paint a picture of a lush, wild oasis in the ancient Maya city.
Recent studies show that, in the future, the mercury concentration of fish in Finnish Lapland can shift closer to the level found in lakes located below the Arctic Circle. According to researchers, mercury content should be increasingly carefully investigated and monitored in fish and food webs, as the climate and land use change.
Researchers report that they have taken a step toward overcoming the challenge of inexpensive hydrogen production by using supercomputers to find materials that could help accelerate hydrogen separation when water is exposed to light, a process called photocatalysis.
Biologists have discovered 71 new 'imprinted' genes in the mouse genome, a finding that takes them a step closer to unravelling some of the mysteries of epigenetics - an area of science that describes how genes are switched on (and off) in different cells, at different stages in development and adulthood.
This model addresses the fact that most traditional climate models effectively ignore cities entirely, causing them to underestimate the frequency and severity of urban heat waves. Urban areas make up only 2-3% of the earth's land, so their effect on global models is negligible, but more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so their impact is significant.
By 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Researchers have developed software that shows city planners where to invest in nature to improve people's lives and save billions of dollars.
In a new study using variant virus recovered from one of the original travelers, researchers in the US and Japan have found that vaccination with an mRNA vaccine induces antibody responses that would protect humans from infection with the gamma/P.1 variant.
By cleverly combining complementary sequencing techniques, researchers have deepened our understanding of the function of known RNA molecules and discovered thousands of new RNAs. A better understanding of our transcriptome is essential to better understand disease processes and uncover novel genes that may serve as therapeutic targets or biomarkers.
The depths of the Black Sea store comparatively large amounts of organic carbon. A research team has now presented a new hypothesis as to why organic compounds accumulate in this semi-enclosed sea and other oxygen-depleted waters. Reactions with hydrogen sulfide play an important role in stabilizing carbon compounds, the researchers posit. This negative feedback in the climate system could counteract global warming over geological periods.
Once thought to be extinct, lobe-finned coelacanths are enormous fish that live deep in the ocean. Now, researchers have evidence that, in addition to their impressive size, coelacanths also can live for an impressively long time -- perhaps nearly a century.
The glaciers of Nanga Parbat - one of the highest mountains in the world - have been shrinking slightly but continually since the 1930s. This loss in surface area is evidenced by a long-term study. The geographers combined historical photographs, surveys, and topographical maps with current data, which allowed them to show glacial changes for this massif in the north-western Himalaya as far back as the mid-1800s.
Nitrogen from agriculture, vehicle emissions and industry is endangering butterflies in Switzerland. The element is deposited in the soil via the air and has an impact on vegetation -- to the detriment of the butterflies, as researchers have discovered.
Chronic stress could be one reason why some animal orphans have shorter lives and less offspring. Researchers assessed if, as orphan humans, orphan chimpanzees are exposed to chronic stress. They found that maternal loss is stressful but orphans experience little chronic stress since stress hormones return to normal after two years, possibly thanks to care provided by other chimpanzees.
Using neural networks, researchers have developed a new method to search the human genome for beneficial mutations from Neanderthals and other archaic humans. These humans are known to have interbred with modern humans, but the overall fate of the genetic material inherited from them is still largely unknown. Among others, the researchers found previously unreported mutations involved in core pathways in metabolism, blood-related diseases and immunity.
A new study shows that medium-sized predators all but disappeared late in dinosaur history wherever Tyrannosaurus rex and its close relatives rose to dominance. In those areas -- lands that eventually became central Asia and Western North America -- juvenile tyrannosaurs stepped in to fill the missing ecological niche previously held by other carnivores.
Climate modelers have found evidence that massive icebergs from roughly 31,000 years ago drifted more than 5,000km (> 3,000 miles) along the eastern United States coast from Northeast Canada all the way to southern Florida.
Underwater archaeologists have been studying 9,000-year-old stone tool artifacts discovered in Lake Huron that originated from an obsidian quarry more than 2,000 miles away in central Oregon. The obsidian flakes from the underwater archaeological site represent the oldest and farthest east confirmed specimens of western obsidian ever found in the continental United States.