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Science & Environment / Eurek Alert

Marijuana use among northern California women before, during pregnancy

An observational study of pregnant women in Northern California suggests marijuana use before and during pregnancy has increased over time. The study of nearly 277,000 women in Kaiser Permanente Northern California included 367,403 pregnancies from 2009 to 2017. The women reported marijuana use on questionnaires as part of standard prenatal care.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Is 2016 US presidential election associated with preterm births among Latina women?

A national population-based study suggests the 2016 US presidential election may have been associated with an increase in preterm births among Latina women in the United States. The design of the study is used to evaluate whether policies or other population-level changes interrupt a trend in an outcome.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
More women using cannabis daily before and during pregnancy, Kaiser Permanente research finds

The number of women using cannabis in the year before they get pregnant and early in their pregnancies is increasing, and their frequency of use is also rising, according to new data from Kaiser Permanente.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Analysis result of the proxy-method based retrievals from GOSAT2

Greenhouse gasses Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2) developed jointly by the Ministry of the Environment, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies was successfully launched on October 29, 2018 from JAXA Tanegashima Space Center.We will summarize the analysis result of the proxy-method based retrievals (methane and carbon monoxide) from data acquired by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrom

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Ivacaftor may reduce common infections in patients with CF

Patients with cystic fibrosis who take ivacaftor appear to have fewer respiratory infections over time than those not taking the drug, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
NASA sees Tropical Storm Danas track through the East China Sea

NASA's Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Danas moving through the East China Sea on July 19, 2019.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
NIH study links air pollution to increase in newborn intensive care admissions

Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air pollution in the week before delivery are more likely to be admitted to a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
2016 election linked to increase in preterm births among US Latinas

A significant jump in preterm births to Latina mothers living in the U.S. occurred in the nine months following the November 8, 2016 election of President Donald Trump, according to a study led by a researcher at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Taking out the protein garbage becomes more difficult as neurons age

As cells age, their ability to shed harmful refuse declines. New research suggests that the deterioration of autophagy in aged neurons could be a risk factor for a suite of neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Study reveals genetic similarities of osteosarcoma between dogs and children

A bone cancer known as osteosarcoma is genetically similar in dogs and human children, according to the results of a study published today by Tufts University and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope. The findings could help break the logjam in the treatment of this deadly disease, which hasn't seen a significant medical breakthrough in nearly three decades.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Bridging the nanoscale gap: A deep look inside atomic switches

A team of researchers from Tokyo Institute of Technology has gained unprecedented insight into the inner workings of an atomic switch. By investigating the composition of the tiny metal 'bridge' that forms inside the switch, their findings may spur the design of atomic switches with improved performance.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Newly discovered neural pathway processes acute light to affect sleep

Either to check the time or waste time, people often look at their smartphones after waking in the middle of the night. While this acute burst of light does make it more difficult to fall back to sleep, a new Northwestern University study reports that it won't interfere with the body's overall circadian rhythms.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Offering children a wide variety and large quantities of snack food encourages them to eat more

Offering children a wide variety and large quantities of snack food encourages them to eat more - and may contribute to weight problems, a new study has found.The research, led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute and published in the latest International Journal of Obesity, also found that how snacks are presented (in a large or small container) has little influence on how much children snack.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
X-ray laser sight reveals drug targets

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have published a review on serial femtosecond crystallography, one of the most promising methods for analyzing the tertiary structure of proteins. This technique has rapidly evolved over the past decade, opening new prospects for the rational design of drugs targeting proteins previously inaccessible to structural analysis.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
3q29 deletion survey: distinct social profile, high ASD risk

3q29 deletion syndrome is a strong risk factor for both schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. People with the rare condition have a distinct neuropsychiatric profile, researchers found.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
In the Global South less than one-third of high blood pressure patients treated

Healthcare in low- and middle-income countries is poorly prepared for the increasing number of high blood pressure (ie hypertension) disorders. More than two-thirds of all people affected go without treatment. Researchers led by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the University of Göttingen and the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg have discovered this. The study appeared in The Lancet.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Understanding the mode of action of the primaquine: New insights into a 70 year old puzzle

Researchers at LSTM have taken significant steps in understanding the way that the anti-malarial drug primaquine (PQ) works, which they hope will lead to the development of new, safer and more effective treatments for malaria.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
What do the red 'ornaments' of female macaques mean?

Scientists demonstrated that, contrary to what had been assumed for several years, colour variations among female macaques do not precisely indicate the time of ovulation. On the other hand, dominant female macaques, who usually have greater reproductive success, have darker hindquarters.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Operative versus non-operative treatment for 2-part proximal humerus fracture

Although increasingly used, the benefit of surgical treatment of displaced 2-part proximal humerus fractures has not been proven. This trial evaluates the clinical effectiveness of surgery with locking plate compared with non-operative treatment for these fractures.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Cigarette butts hamper plant growth -- study

Researchers have shown for the first time that cigarette butts reduce plant growth. Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter worldwide, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Boosting the discovery of new drugs to treat spinal cord injuries using zebrafish

A research team led by Leonor Saúde, Principal Investigator at Instituto de Medicina Molecular, in partnership with the company Technophage, SA, has designed a simple and efficient platform that uses zebrafish to discover and identify new drugs to treat spinal cord lesions. This study, published today in Scientific Reports, is the proof-of-concept for the use of this zebrafish platform that, combined with drug repurposing, has the potential to accelerate the translation period from the discover

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Sustainable land management key to reducing Amazon wildfires, study shows

The unrelenting deforestation of the Amazon region could lead to a dramatic increase to the risk of destructive wildfire outbreaks, research has shown.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Flexible user interface distribution for ubiquitous multi-device interaction

KAIST researchers have developed mobile software platform technology that allows a mobile application (app) to be executed simultaneously and more dynamically on multiple smart devices. Its high flexibility and broad applicability can help accelerate a shift from the current single-device paradigm to a multiple one, which enables users to utilize mobile apps in ways previously unthinkable.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Hearing loss tied with mental, physical, and social ailments in older people

Hearing loss has a profound impact on older people, as it can lead to anxiety, restricted activity, and perhaps even cognitive decline and dementia. Research in Japan led by the University of Tsukuba examined associations of hearing loss with outdoor activity limitations, psychological distress, and memory loss in people aged 65 and over. All three conditions were significantly worse when there was hearing loss. The findings support early interventions such as use of hearing aids.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Atomically precise models improve understanding of fuel cells

Simulations from researchers in Japan provide new insights into the reactions occurring in solid-oxide fuel cells by using realistic atomic-scale models of the electrode active site based on microscope observations instead of the simplified and idealized atomic structures employed in previous studies. This better understanding of how the structures in the cells affect the reactions could give clues on ways to improve performance and durability in future devices.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Heat transport through single molecules

International team of researchers with participation of the University of Konstanz achieves breakthrough in the area of heat transport at molecular scales

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Study sheds light on the darker parts of our genetic heritage

More than half of our genome consists of transposons, DNA sequences that are reminiscent of ancient, extinct viruses. Transposons are normally silenced by a process known as DNA methylation, but their activation can lead to serious diseases. Very little is known about transposons but researchers in an international collaboration project have now succeeded for the first time in studying what happens when DNA methylation is lost in human cells. These findings provide new insight into how changes

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Biologist leads pioneering study on stress

A biologist at Louisiana State University conducted a pioneering research study that could help us to better understand the role of dopamine in stress resilience in humans through analyzing wild songbirds. This study could lead to increased prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Study shows relationship between type of delivery and twins' psychological development

A research team of the University of Malaga (UMA) in the area of Medicine and Psychology has analyzed for the first time the effect of the type of delivery on twins' psychological development and intelligence, demonstrating that cesarean section carries an independent risk in these multiple births.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Discovering how diabetes leads to vascular disease

A team of UC Davis Health scientists and physicians has identified a cellular connection between diabetes and one of its major complications -- blood vessel narrowing that increases risks of several serious health conditions, including heart disease and stroke.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Newly discovered biosynthetic pathway in bacteria recipe for drug discovery and production

Researchers at the University of Illinois and University of California, Los Angeles described a novel biochemical strategy used by bacteria to synthesize natural products.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Take a bath 90 minutes before bedtime to get better sleep

Biomedical engineers at UT Austin have found a way for people to get better shuteye. Systematic review protocols allowed researchers to analyze thousands of studies linking water-based passive body heating, or bathing and showering with warm/hot water, with improved sleep quality.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Turkestan cockroach selling online is a companion of the common household cockroach

The Turkestan cockroach (commonly known as the red runner roach or rusty red roach), which is popular as food for pet reptiles, has an interneuron extremely sensitive to sex pheromones emitted by American cockroaches, providing evidence that the Turkestan cockroach is phylogenetically close to the American cockroach and the smoky brown cockroach belonging to the genus Periplaneta.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
New research finds private practice physicians less likely to maintain electronic records

The research led by Jordan Everson, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Health Policy at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), finds striking differences in use of electronic health records (EHRs) among more than 291,000 physicians included in the study.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
An air-stable and waterproof lithium metal anode

The instability of lithium metal anode in air and the dendrite growth limit its applications. Recently, a research team led by Prof. Quan-Hong Yang in Tianjin University and Prof. Wei Lv in Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University developed an air-stable and water proof lithium metal anode by building a wax-poly (ethylene oxide) composite protective coating, learning from electronic package technology. The coating also suppresses dendrite growth, guaranteeing the stability of lithium met

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Teacher treatment of students factors into racial gap in school suspensions

An analysis led by Brown sociologist Jayanti Owens found that different treatment of black and white students accounted for half of the racial gap in school suspensions and expulsions among 5- to 9-year-old children.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Heat flow through single molecules detected

Researchers develop ways to measure and explain heat transport through a single molecule.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
KIST uesed eco-friendly composite catalyst and ultrasound to remove pollutants from water

Developed eco-friendly, low-cost, and high-efficiency wastewater processing catalyst made from agricultural byproduct, and High efficiency and removal rate achieved through application of ultrasound stimulation, leading to high expectation for the development of an environmental hormone removal system.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Successful application of machine learning in the discovery of new polymers

As a powerful example of how artificial intelligence (AI) can accelerate the discovery of new materials, scientists in Japan have designed and verified polymers with high thermal conductivity -- a property that would be the key to heat management, for example, in the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication technologies. Their study highlights the great advantages of machine learning methods over traditional ways of searching for high-performance materials.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Routine blood tests could predict diabetes

A study that looked at data on more than 900,000 VA patients showed that elevated blood glucose levels detected in routine outpatient tests, though well below diagnostic thresholds, predicted diabetes within 5 years.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Space research helps patients on Earth with low blood pressure condition

With the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing approaching, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers are publishing heart-related space research that helps us to understand the problem of low blood pressure.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
USF geoscientists discover mechanisms controlling Greenland ice sheet collapse

New radar technology allowed USF geoscientists to look at Greenland's dynamic ice-ocean interface that drives sea level rise.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
X-ray mapping enhances potential of lightweight magnesium

A World-first study by Monash University, published in Nature Communications, has discovered a technique for creating stronger, lightweight magnesium alloys. This finding could be of significant benefit to the automobile and aerospace industries.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Smart irrigation model predicts rainfall to conserve water

A predictive model combining information about plant physiology, real-time soil conditions and weather forecasts can help make more informed decisions about when and how much to irrigate. This could save 40 percent of the water consumed by more traditional methods, according to new Cornell University research.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
NIH publishes largest genomic study on type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan African populations

Researchers at NHGRI have performed the largest GWAS study on type 2 diabetes in the sub-Saharan African populations, revealing an association between the disease and previously unlinked ZRANB3 gene. By using animal models, their results show that dysfunction of the ZRANB3 gene has major repercussions on insulin production. This link may hold key answers to the treatment of type 2 diabetes in all populations.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Chest X-rays contain information that can be harvested with AI

The most frequently performed imaging exam in medicine, the chest X-ray, holds 'hidden' prognostic information that can be harvested with artificial intelligence (AI). Findings of this study could help to identify patients most likely to benefit from screening and preventive medicine for heart disease, lung cancer and other conditions.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Quantum interference in service of information technology

Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the NIST agency, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. Their studies may boost applications of quantum technologies in e.g. artificial intelligence, robotics and medical diagnostics. The results of this work have been published in the Science Advances journal.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Astronauts less likely to faint on Earth if they exercise in space; findings may help others with fainting issues

Up to two hours of endurance and resistance exercises daily during a long space flight mission, combined with IV fluid replacement after landing, helps astronauts prevent dizziness and fainting during normal activity when they return to Earth. The study findings also have implications for a variety of people with health conditions that cause them to faint when standing up, and people on bed rest for long periods.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Music can be a viable alternative to medications in reducing anxiety before anesthesia

Music is a viable alternative to sedative medications in reducing patient anxiety prior to a peripheral nerve block procedure, according to a new Penn Medicine study. Patients commonly take sedative medications, like midazolam, prior to the procedure to reduce anxiety. In this study, researchers found a track of relaxing music to be similarly effective to the intravenous form of midazolam in reducing a patient's anxiety prior to the procedure.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am
Predicting long-term risk of death from chest X-rays

Researchers in this study looked at whether a computing system that analyzed data from thousands of chest X-rays of smokers and nonsmokers and developed a risk score could predict long-term risk of death.

19 Jul 2019 9:30 am